Bee nests inspire UP scientists to make new ‘smart’ materials

Bee nests are a marvel of natural engineering that have inspired human engineers and inventors for centuries. Now, Filipino researchers are investigating ways to create porous materials that not only mimic the strengths of beehives but are also able to selectively trap microparticles. These new materials have potential uses in everything from water purifiers to medical sensors.

The researchers from the UPD-CS Institute of Chemistry include the paper’s authors (counter-clockwise, from middle left) Jose Jesus Gayosa, Dr. Susan Arco, Gillian Kathryn Yap, and Marco Laurence Budlayan. Not in photo is fellow UP researcher and co-author, Jonathan Patricio. Also in photo (at back, L to R) are Leo Sabolboro and Miguel Karlo Santos. (Photo credit: Dr. Susan Arco)

Jonathan Patricio, Gillian Kathryn Yap, Jose Jesus Gayosa, and Dr. Susan Arco of the UP Diliman College of Science’s Institute of Chemistry (UPD-CS IC) and colleagues from the Ateneo de Manila University (ADMU) were able to control the physical properties of porous polyvinyl chloride (PVC) films by adjusting the drying temperature used in the manufacturing process.

The PVC is formed around droplets of water which, when they evaporate, leave a pattern of microscopic holes reminiscent of a bee’s nest. Such honeycomb structures have long been recognized for their engineering applications:

“One of the most interesting structures inspired by nature is the honeycomb pattern… Its unique properties and structure inspired the construction of light and robust aircraft and spacecraft, protection gear, panels, packaging, and cushioning because of an ability to absorb impact and energy,” the researchers explained in their paper.

“The repeating units of a honeycomb pattern can also effectively trap particles and impurities thus making them a promising structure for air and water filters,” they added.

The UP researchers investigated the difference in the honeycomb structure of PVC films that were dried at room temperature (a) and at temperatures above 80°C (b). (Photo credit: M. L. M. Budlayan)
Drying temperatures in the manufacturing process for PVC films affects the wall thickness and cell size of the films’ honeycomb structures. These PVC films have a wide range of potential uses. (Photo credit: M. L. M. Budlayan)

The researchers also explored the wettability of the various honeycomb PVC materials they created, as well as the potential of selectively trapping microparticles by subjecting the honeycomb to an electric charge.

The study “opens the possibility of integrating polymeric honeycomb structures into substrates used for microparticle trapping, sensing, and other related applications,” the researchers concluded.

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Budlayan, M. L. M., Patricio, J. N., Yap, G. K. B., Gayosa, J. J. A., Arco, S. D., Diaz, J. M. A., & Guerrero, R. A. (2023). Honeycomb pattern formation on poly(Vinyl chloride) films: Electrically-driven microparticle trapping and the effect of drying temperature. Materials Research Express, 10(8), 085304.

UPAA to support government’s Ambisyon 2040

Written by Jo. Florendo B. Lontoc

Arsenio Balisacan, National Economic and Development Authority Secretary and 2023 UPAA Most Distinguished Alumnus, receives a certificate and tokens of appreciation from the UP Alumni Association (UPAA), represented by Robert Lester Aranton, UPAA President and Alumni Regent, for being the resource speaker of the UP Alumni Council Meeting on August 18, 2023 at Ang Bahay ng Alumni, UP Diliman, Quezon City. Milagros de Guzman, UPAA Assistant Secretary, and Amina Zalmira Rasul-Bernardo, UPAA Board of Directors member and Council Meeting master of ceremonies, look on. Photo by Abraham Arboleda, UPMPRO.

The University of the Philippines Alumni Council, the advisory body of the UP Alumni Association (UPAA), resolved to fully support Ambisyon 2040, the government’s program for long-term economic growth.

The council made the resolution during its annual meeting with the theme, “Handog sa Pamantasan, Pag-alay sa Bayan”. With resource person for the resolution, Secretary Arsenio Balisacan of the National Economic and Development Authority (NEDA). The meeting was held at the Ang Bahay ng Alumni in UP Diliman on August 18.

Balisacan, this year’s UPAA Most Distinguished Alumnus, explained Ambisyon 2040 in his UP Alumni Council Meeting lecture, “Social and Economic Transformation for Inclusive Philippine Development”. The program envisions human development as “matatag, maginhawa, at panatag”.

He emphasized that a “rapid, sustained, and inclusive growth is a necessary condition for the Philippines to become a predominantly middle-class society” by 2040. Balisacan spoke of a target annual growth rate of 6-8.5%.

Arsenio Balisacan, National Economic and Development Authority Secretary and 2023 UPAA Most Distinguished Alumnus, delivers his lecture, “Social and Economic Transformation for Inclusive Philippine Development” as the resource speaker for the UP Alumni Council Meeting on August 18, 2023 at Ang Bahay ng Alumni, UP Diliman, Quezon City. Photo by Abraham Arboleda, UPMPRO.

While maintaining that the trick to growth is in the hands of the private sector, particularly through innovation and actively targeting bigger markets, government must raise its spending to achieve the targeted growth rates. Balisacan said government must sustain spending on infrastructure at 5-6% of GDP (gross domestic product). He said NEDA would continue monitoring and advising slow spenders in government.

Balisacan further highlighted the need for government to enhance society’s ecosystem for research and development and innovations, requiring, among others, robust partnership among government, private sector, and the academe.

The UP Alumni Council through Atty. Raul Reyes, the UPAA legal counsel and Chair of Council’s Resolution Committee, presented a draft of the resolution, which stated that the UPAA “will fully support the [NEDA’S] program for long-term economic growth called the Ambisyon 2040”.

Raul Reyes, UP Alumni Association (UPAA) Legal Counsel and UPAA Resolutions Committee Chair, presents the draft Council Resolutions to the Alumni Council body during the Council Meeting on August 18, 2023 at Ang Bahay ng Alumni, UP Diliman, Quezon City. Photo by Abraham Arboleda, UPMPRO.

It further resolved that the UPAA “will support and participate in the academe’s role in the government’s plan for social and economic transformation in order to raise the quality of investments vis-a-vis employment” and that it “will actively contribute to and encourage academic programs that will produce graduates who are eligible to provide efficient human capital to the government’s programs”.

The UP Alumni Council is composed of: University officials, deans and directors; past and present members of the UP Board of Regents; the current UPAA Board of Directors and the current officers of the UPAA chapters; the Distinguished Alumni Awardees; and other persons as may be designated by the UPAA Board of Directors.

It holds the annual meeting in order to draft and pass resolutions presented for endorsement to the general UPAA membership during the General Homecoming. These resolutions are then submitted to: the UP alumni in Congress and in the Senate for aid in legislation; the Board of Regents; and appropriate government and private agencies for reference in formulation of policies.

Additional photos of the Alumni Council Meeting are available below.

Milagros de Guzman, Assistant Secretary of the UP Alumni Association, delivers the invocation during the UP Alumni Council Meeting on August 18, 2023 at Ang Bahay ng Alumni, UP Diliman, Quezon City. Photo by Abraham Arboleda, UPMPRO.
Robert Lester Aranton, UPAA President and Alumni Regent, delivers the welcome remarks during the UP Alumni Council Meeting on August 18, 2023 at Ang Bahay ng Alumni, UP Diliman, Quezon City. Photo by Abraham Arboleda, UPMPRO
Jeanette Yasol-Naval, UP System Office of Alumni Relations Director, makes a roll call of the UP Alumni Council during their annual meeting held on August 18, 2023 at Ang Bahay ng Alumni, UP Diliman, Quezon City. Photo by Abraham Arboleda, UPMPRO .
Herminio Bagro III, UP Alumni Association (UPAA) Secretary and UP Alumni Council Meeting Committee Chair, introduces the resource speaker for the UP Alumni Council Meeting on August 18, 2023 at Ang Bahay ng Alumni, UP Diliman, Quezon City. Photo by Abraham Arboleda, UPMPRO.
Arsenio Balisacan, National Economic and Development Authority Secretary and 2023 UPAA Most Distinguished Alumnus. delivers his lecture, “Social and Economic Transformation for Inclusive Philippine Development” as the resource speaker for the UP Alumni Council Meeting on August 18, 2023 at Ang Bahay ng Alumni, UP Diliman, Quezon City; with the panelists: Herminio Bagro III, UP Alumni Association (UPAA) Secretary and UP Alumni Council Meeting Committee Chair; Robert Lester Aranton, UPAA President and Alumni Regent; Jeanette Yasol-Naval, Acting Vice President for Public Affairs and UP System Office of Alumni Relations Director; and Amina Zalmira Rasul-Bernardo, UPAA Board of Director member and 2016 UPAA Most Distinguished Alumna. Photo by Abraham Arboleda, UPMPRO.
The UP Alumni Council led by the UP Alumni Association Board of Directors conducts the annual meeting to draft resolutions to be supported by the UP Alumni Association for forwarding to top policy bodies of the country, on August 18, 2023 at Ang Bahay ng Alumni, UP Diliman, Quezon City. Photo by Abraham Arboleda, UPMPRO.
The UP Alumni Council members raise their fists as they sing the closing lines of “UP Naming Mahal” at the closing of the UP Alumni Council Meeting on August 18, 2023 at Ang Bahay ng Alumni, UP Diliman, Quezon City. Photo by Abraham Arboleda, UPMPRO.
UP President Angelo Jimenez joins the UP Alumni Council for lunch during the latter’s annual meeting held this year on August 18 at Ang Bahay ng Alumni, UP Diliman, Quezon City. Photo by Abraham Arboleda, UPMPRO.


Investigating the role of bird perches in reforestation

Reforesting damaged forests is crucial for fighting climate change and protecting wildlife. One common way to do this is by planting trees, but this can be expensive and labor-intensive. A cheaper and more effective approach is Assisted Natural Regeneration (ANR), which can involve the use of bird perches to attract fruit-eating birds that can help spread tree seeds and speed up the natural regeneration of the forest.

A Philippine green pigeon (Treron axillaris) is seen eating a fig, the seeds of which will be dispersed the next time the bird defecates. Researchers are looking at the potential role of artificial and natural bird perches in this dispersal process towards restoring degraded forests.(Photo credit: Jelaine Lim Gan)

Researchers from the University of the Philippines – Diliman College of Science Institute of Biology (UPD-CS IB), the Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, and the UK’s Newcastle University aim to embark on a systematic review and meta analysis of previous studies and observations to figure out how well artificial and natural perches work in increasing seed dispersal and seedling growth on degraded areas.

“The results will synthesize available evidence on the topic, identify knowledge gaps we need filling to upscale the strategy, and inform their use in concert with other ANR strategies,” the researchers said in their paper. “The search strategy was informed through a literature scan and discussions with stakeholders and experts,” they added.

The meta study aims to see if perches help bring in more seeds and seedlings in terms of numbers and types. The researchers hope to learn how to use perches better and combine them with other strategies to bring damaged forests back to life.

The results of the meta study are expected to be available in 2024.


Gan, J. L., Grainger, M. J., Shirley, M. D. F., & Pfeifer, M. (03 August 2023). How effective are perches in promoting bird-mediated seed dispersal for natural forest regeneration? A systematic review protocol. Environmental Evidence, 12(1), 15.

For interview requests and other media inquiries, please contact: UPD-CS Science Communications at [email protected]

Panaad at Kabilin: Pagtatalaga kay Kgg. Angelo A. Jimenez bilang ika-22 Pangulo ng Unibersidad ng Pilipinas

Panaad at Kabilin: Pagtatalaga kay Kgg. Angelo A. Jimenez bilang ika-22 Pangulo ng Unibersidad ng Pilipinas
[Investiture of Atty. Angelo A. Jimenez as 22nd President of the University of the Philippines]
Date: September 14, 2023
Time: 9:00 AM
Venue: UP Mindanao Atrium, Tugbok, Davao City, Davao del Sur

“The hallmark of UP in the next six years will be service to the nation. Service to the nation is constitutive of who we are and what we do. Together, we will work towards a UP that is more engaged with the nation,” Atty. Angelo A. Jimenez said in his speech on Feb. 10, when he accepted the position and authority of leading the University as its 22nd President.

Born and raised in the City of Butuan, Agusan del Norte, Jimenez is the first Mindanawan and the first Manobo, honored and named as “Datu Mankalagan” or “Great Spirit” in 2007, to become UP President. To mark the symbolic significance of his rise to become the head of UP as the national university, his formal investiture as the 22nd UP President will be held at the Atrium of UP Mindanao, in Tugbok, Davao City, on Sept. 14 at 9:00 AM.

For Jimenez, being a son of the South is integral to his UP Presidency. “It was when I got elected that people reminded me that I’m the first UP President who came from Mindanao; and I was amazed, actually surprised, maybe a little bit shocked,” he said in an interview he did for the UP Forum. “I never realized that my election would resonate in Mindanao. Finally, one of their own has become a UP President. I wanted to, in my own little way, remind UP where its ultimate loyalty belongs; and, I couldn’t imagine a more marginalized community than our IPs in the mountains where there has been an ongoing conflict and there still is right now.”

Jimenez is a labor lawyer and a respected authority on global worker migration. His work has contributed to the establishment of the country’s new Department of Migrant Workers, as well as to the labor migration regulatory framework in countries in Asia, Africa, and the Middle East. A former Deputy Administrator of the Overseas Workers Welfare Administration, he served as Labor Attache in Japan, Kuwait, and Iraq, and was awarded Presidential citations for his work in ensuring the safety of Filipino workers during the Israel-Lebanon conflict, including the rescue of a Filipino hostage held in Iraq.

With his extensive background in labor migration, Jimenez has been tapped as an expert lecturer by the UP Centre International de Formation des Autorités et Leaders or International Training Center for Authorities and Leaders Philippines. He has also written papers for organizations such as the International Organization for Migration Philippines and the Blas Ople Policy Center He is a regular lecturer on Philippine overseas labor laws at the UP Law Center’s Mandatory Continuing Legal Education program.

Jimenez served on the UP Board of Regents twice, first as a Student Regent in 1992, when he was also elected Chair of the University Student Council of UP Diliman; and again when he was appointed Regent by former President Rodrigo R. Duterte in 2016, during which Jimenez also served concurrently as Trustee of the UP Foundation, Inc.

He obtained both his Bachelor of Laws and Bachelor of Arts (Sociology) degrees from UP Diliman. As a law student at UP Diliman, he was Associate Editor of the Philippine Collegian and President of the College Editors Guild of the Philippines. He went on to earn his Master in Public Management degree from the National University of Singapore’s Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy. He was also a Lee Kuan Yew Fellow at the Harvard School of Government.

Read more about his profile here

Taking inspiration from and being guided by his Mindanawan and indigenous roots, Jimenez aims to highlight the view from the margins and bring a unique perspective on how UP can further contribute to national development. Championing kindness in the University, and setting public service as a pillar of his vision and strategic initiatives for UP, his administration plans to widen access to UP and UP-quality education through various courses, modes, and platforms, as well as to strengthen partnerships with Philippine SUCs. These partnerships are intended to advance higher education in the country through shared knowledge and expertise.

UP Mindanao, which is hosting an investiture ceremony for the UP President for the first time, is the sixth constituent university under the UP System, and the only UP constituent university in Mindanao with the primary mandate to provide equitable access to quality UP education to Mindanawans. It offers academic programs in the fields of the humanities, architecture, mathematics, food, economics, social, natural, and computing sciences. As a graduate university, it offer a PhD by Research, and graduate degrees in management, food science, urban and regional planning, and sports science. Its development agenda focuses on opening additional academic programs and new Colleges in Human Kinetics, Medicine, and Engineering, to support Mindanao sports, health, technological, and bio-cultural diversity initiatives. UP Mindanao is headed by Chancellor Lyre Anni E. Murao. (For more news on UP Mindanao, visit their Facebook page)


UP Ugnayan ng Pahinungód’s 30th Anniversary Painting Competition!

Join the UP Ugnayan ng Pahinungód’s 30th Anniversary Painting Competition! This is open to UP students, faculty, staff, alumni, and retirees.

View contest mechanics here:
Submit your artwork through this link:

The Ugnayan ng Pahinungód is the volunteer service program of the University of the Philippines. Follow our new Facebook page so you can stay tuned for updates.

Source: UP System Ugnayan ng Pahinungód Facebook

UP Mindanao signs an agreement with UPAA Davao board to start the rehabilitation of the Masjid located inside the campus

UP Mindanao signed an agreement with University of the Philippines Alumni Association Davao (UPAAD) board to start the rehabilitation of the Masjid located inside the campus. This initiative aims to promote its use by members of the UP Mindanao Association of Muslim Students (UPMAMS) and other Muslim constituents.

Chancellor Lyre Anni Murao signed the agreement with UPAAD President Pedro “Bogs” Quitain III. The signing was witnessed by UPMAMS head Sittie Asia Marohom of BS Anthropology 2023 and UPAAD Vice-President Bai Ashrafia Aymee Biruar-Mitmug. UPAAD directors Dr. Khalil Guinomla, Ana Gualberto, UPAAD chairperson Napoleon Concepcion, and Assistant secretary Rene Estremera also witnessed the event. Marie Glenn Sorila, Krishna Balaga, and Brian Good attended through Zoom.

Source: UP Mindanao Facebook

Photos from Bogs Quitain Facebook

UP-AAPMAAI turns over Php200K donation to UP Visayas

UP Affirmative Action Program for Mindanao Alumni Association, Inc. (UP-AAPMAAI) turned over its Php200K donation to UP Visayas Chancellor Clement C. Camposano last August 20, 2023 at Diversion21 Hotel, the last day of this year’s Homecoming celebrations. This was in addition to their initial Php1M donation turned over December of 2020. These will be part of their Endowment Scholarship Program to support students from Mindanao.

Present during the turnover were UP-AAPMI members and officers headed by, its President, Dr. Cherry P. Añasco, Prof. Celia Parcon, and Dr. Alice Prieto-Carolino, and UPV officials including UPV Office of Alumni Relations Director, Dr. Rey Carlo T. Gonzales.

UP-AAPM is a UP System program at UPV implemented in AY 1991-1992 to support UPV students from Mindanao. It ended in AY 1996-1997 when UP Mindanao was established.

Now, its alumni wants to continue its legacy.

(with sources from UP-AAPMAAI, and Dr. Cherry P. Añasco)

Source: UPV Office of Alumni Relations Facebook

UPV Homecoming in New Highs Post-Pandemic

GC Castro, UPV-OAR

UPV Homecoming Dinner and Awards Night
UPV Homecoming Dinner and Awards Night
Health & Wellness

The UPV alumni were treated to a series of face to face events in the 2023 UPV Homecoming. The main highlights were held from August 18 to 20, 2023 in the UPV Iloilo City Campus.

The university’s Office of Alumni Relations (OAR) partnered with the various alumni associations, organizations, batches, offices, and colleges to come up with the various activities for the alumni.

The UP Alumni Association Iloilo Chapter (UPAA-IC) organized and co-organized the bulk of events during this Homecoming season such as UPadyak bike ride, Alumni Games (which include basketball, badminton, and football), as well as the motorcade, food fair and bazaar, wellness activities, the annual election for their board of directors, and the much celebrated annual Homecoming Dinner and Awards Night.

Hamili Hamilia Homecoming
Run UP! fun run

Other partner alumni associations which organized more institutionalized and recurring events include UP Silak/UP Silab AA who conducted the Run UP! fun run, and the Golden Lunch for the university’s retired faculty and staff; UP Scintilla Jvris/UP Stella Juris AA, organized the solemn and recurring Homecoming Mass; Validus Amicitia Brotherhood AA held the yearly favorite VArrio Fiesta brunch for the alumni; and UP Hamili/UP Hamilia AA, with their signature lechon baka (roast beef) for all. OneUPV, meanwhile held an online Homecoming for alumni from different parts of the world.

SoTech Bingo
Goldies Day

Alumni association and college tandems include the School of Technology and SOTECH AA, in their regular SoTech Socials and Bingo!; iAmUPHi and UP High School in Iloilo for the colorful, whole-day event, Goldies Day.

Alumni batches also mounted events such as UPHSI Class of 1968’s Tribute to My Alma Mater, an art exhibit of works by their fellow alumnus Prof. Roman Sanares—half of the proceedings from the event are intended to go to UPHSI projects; UPVHS Class of 1983’s showing of 3 short films of renowned Prof. Kevin Piamonte; UPVHS Class of 1965’ free food kiosks, and UPVHS Class of 1981’s Dugo Kay Isko, a yearly blood donation drive.

Mini homecomings included the College of Management’s Alumni Homecoming dubbed ‘Back2Base’, and UP Hamili / Hamilia’s Homecoming held at District 21 Hotel.

Various alumni appreciation efforts were made during some of the events. During Goldies Day, high school batches who were donors to UPV’s ‘Adopt a Room’ Project were given recognition. In the Homecoming Dinner and Awards Night, held at Diversion21 Hotel, three of the remaining pioneer alumni and 12 outstanding professionals were awarded the Oblation Trophy.

UPV Chancellor Clement C. Camposano graced the various events. Other UPV officials were also present in various activities including Vice Chancellor for Administration John Lorenz R. Belanio, Vice Chancellor for Planning and Development Rhodella A. Ibabao, Vice Chancellor for Acedemic Affairs Philip Ian P. Padilla, Vice Chancellor for Research and Extension Harold M. Monteclaro, and OAR Director Rey Carlo T. Gonzales.

The annual Homecoming series of events is celebrated by the university in partnership with the various alumni associations, organizations, batches, offices, and colleges.

Skin like butterfly wings: UP scientists investigate rare deadly disease

by Eunice Jean Patron, UPD-CS SciComm

As rare and deadly as it is poetically named, “Butterfly’s Disease” (scientifically known as “epidemolysis bullosa” or simply “EB”) has no known cure. But a handful of Filipino scientists are working their way towards a treatment.

Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) sufferers have very delicate and fragile skin reminiscent of butterfly wings. The disease has many forms, including EB simplex (pictured) as well as the rarer—and potentially deadly—Junctional EB (JEB) that can affect even internal organs. (PHOTO CREDIT: James Heilman, MD | Wikimedia Commons)

EB is a very serious disease, for those afflicted as well as for their families. Sufferers have severely fragile skin that easily blisters and tears even with the slightest touch, hence the comparison to butterfly wings. EB also varies in form, with mild cases that only affect the outer skin to extreme cases that injure even internal organs—an extreme condition that can lead to severe disability or even death.

To further understand Butterfly’s Disease, scientists from the University of the Philippines – Diliman College of Science (UPD-CS) have focused on a genetic mutation known to cause an even rarer type of EB called Junctional EB (JEB), which affects more layers of the skin and can be fatal if it happens during early infancy.

Genetic investigators’ surprise discovery

The onset of JEB has been associated with a genetic mutation called G273D that affects how the body produces a protein called ITGA6-ITGB4 integrin (or Integrin A6B4 for short), which plays a vital role in joining together cells and tissues. The G237D mutation causes the production of malfunctioning Integrin A6B4 and decreases the presence of functional Integrin A6B4 on epithelial cell surfaces, leading to weaker cell adhesion in the skin tissue and resulting in severe skin blisters.

Molecular biologist Dr. Neil Andrew Bascos and his graduate students, Kim Ivan Abesamis and Camille Anne Bagoyo, of the National Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology (UPD-CS NIMBB) are investigating just how G237D affects the structure of Integrin A6B4.

“We weren’t looking to study EB when we started this study,” Dr. Bascos narrated. “The main goal of the research has previously been looking at the function of integrins and their roles in cancer. Interestingly though, we’ve found that integrins may be associated with many other relevant diseases. Finding its involvement in this disfiguring disease provides us a means through which our research may be able to help the afflicted people.”

In their computational study, the researchers investigated how the G237D mutation prevents Integrin A6B4 from forming, and from binding their targets properly. Some factors, such as the presence of calcium ions, were also observed to stabilize integrin interactions.

Paving the way for future research

The study sets the direction for further research into factors that can alter the effect of the G237D mutation on Integrin A6B4 function. Exploring these factors can pave the way for discovering cures for EB. “At this point, it’s very much basic research, medyo predictive pa. It would need proof of principle, but these studies give us concrete targets to test in the search for ways to alleviate the disease,” Dr. Bascos said.

Some people with EB die as infants. Others manage to survive, but suffer from chronic illnesses that stem from its effects. Although little is currently known about effective treatments and cures for Butterfly’s Disease, the UP scientists remain steadfast in their quest to gain a deeper understanding of EB, in hopes of improving the quality of life of these patients and their families.


Abesamis, K. I. A., Bagoyo, C. A. S., & Bascos, N. A. D. (2021). Investigating the effect of a non-conservative mutation (G273D) on integrin alpha6-beta4 binding interactions. Biophysical Journal, 120(3).

Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center. (n.d.). Epidermolysis Bullosa. Retrieved from

EB Research Network. (n.d.). Understanding EB & its classification. Retrieved from

GMA Integrated News and Public Affairs. (n.d.). Butterfly Child. Brigada. Retrieved from

For interview requests and other media inquiries, please contact: [email protected]